Ramasamy, S. M., Saravanavel, J., Yadava, M. G., & Ramesh, R. Ramkumar, M. (2015). Former editor of the journal, Prof. L.B. The results show the occurrences of southern sub-basins with convex hypsometric curves indicating a youth stage and significant tectonic influence. The statue of Sri Lakshmi Varaga Perumal (right) is definitive evidence. (2012). The vertical electrical sounding (VES) curve of a selected profile in the study area is provided as an inset figure. River Kollidam branches out from Cauvery in Mukkombu and most of the water that flows merge into the sea, though some amount goes to Veeranam river, one of the drinking water sources for Chennai city. Discovery, mapping and interpretation of buried cul-, Conyers, L. B. statues of the presiding deity of Sri Varaga Perumal Temple. Owing to its geographic location, and episodic catastrophic floods from the Kaveri and Kollidam Rivers, the region has been inundated frequently, Intrinsic magmatic processes are considered as critical operators of plate movements. Initially, culling information from ancient, literature, temple historic documents and stone inscriptions were, attempted. It splits from the main branch of the Kaveri River at the island of Srirangam and flows eastward into the Bay of Bengal. Gorny Altai: Geophysical and geochemical studies. In addition, in the field, the regions with sandy natural levee with coconut tree plantation and, clayey natural levee with plantain tree plantation are typically observed [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com], Based on their depth slices (Figure 5(E)) and morphologies, they were, interpreted in terms of isolated stone artefacts, metal artefacts, dilap-, idated brick wall structure, stone pavements and pillared structures, and are depicted in a 3D model (Figure 5(F, G)). The river Saraswati was a Himalayan, Yalçiner, C. Ç., Bano, M., Kadioglu, M., Karabacak, V., Meghraoui, M., &, Altunel, E. (2009). been, and continuing yet, since prehistoric times, a thriving religious, cultural, agricultural and human settlement. Appropriate gain and Infinite Impulse Response, (IIR) filter were applied in the field to obtain better resolution and to, remove background noise with lower and higher frequencies, respec-, tively. The paper deals with the results of an archaeo-geophysical approach adopted for the study and the reconstruction of the architectural plan of the medieval monastery of San Pietro a Cellaria in Calvello (Basilicata, Southern Italy). Given cogni-, zance to the geological processes and the possible interventions of. Due to the homogeneous nature of near, were applicable for most survey lines; however, adjustments were, such modifications. This situation has placed India at the crossroads for energy sufficiency, especially under the highly fluid and changing geopolitical, strategic, environmental and economic scenarios of World order. (D) Reflection profile across profile IV along with, buried beams, vertical pillars, wall, isolated stone and metal artefacts. The area also shows the occurrences of paleo breaches, of natural levee/river banks. Then, the regions of interest were surveyed through VES and GPR. (B) Pillar and. profile (Lp), asymmetry factor (Af), hypsometric curve and hypsometric integral (HI), mountain front sinuosity (Smf), river sinuosity (R), stream length gradient (Sl), and shape factor (Shp) were calculated for selected drainage basins of South India. of Chola dynasty (Mulvany, 2011; Ramkumar et al., 2015; nomenon of the Riparian regions of the Kaveri River including. century Paliwal villages around Jaisalmer, western Rajasthan, India: Roy, A. Sahoo, & Shah, 2007), especially in shallow depths of up to 50 m, where other sophisticated geophysical methods are, et al., 2005). (2016). Excavations made after our study confirmed our results. A compilation of historic (stone inscriptions, temple Weathering of gneissic rocks in the, upper reaches of the Cauvery River, South India: Implications to, Sharma, A., & Rajamani, V. (2000b). Furthermore, recent advancements in these, techniques (e.g.Conyers, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016; Conyers, & Leckebusch, 2010; Leucci et al., 2015) have allowed the probing, terization and have led to the discovery of buried geological and. Earlier, the place called Karaimedu was on the northern bank of Coleroon-Kollidam river, it was named Kazhipalai. 1496, and most recently during the years 1924, 1952, 1954, 1965, 1977, 1979, 1983, 1999, 2000, 2005, etc., provide evidence for the. Our study suggests that divide migration leads to lowered erosion rates, channel narrowing, and sediment accretion in intermontane basins on the leeward-side ultimately resulting in enhanced flooding. Denna Indien-relaterade geografiartikel saknar väsentlig information. Probable cause of such massive protective wall is yet unaddressed. that were known only in the literature, hearsay and folklore. Rao, G. S., Radhakrishna, M., & Murthy, K. S. R. (2016). Kollidam Photos page brings you a collection of photos from Kollidam, in Nagapattinam district. vanishing of historic sites on this island. deposits burying historic structures especially adjoining the regional tectonic structure A second dam (1836–38) across the Kollidam (Coleroon) River, the Kaveri’s northern and larger channel, saved the old system from silting and The geologic-geomorphic evolution of the Peninsula is recorded in relic faults/suture zones that confine Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins and landforms. The lithologue and field photograph depicting various soil/. The only preserved medieval remains are a church with a nave; the adjacent structures are more recent. This shows that such structures are widely used during that time for irrigation”. The VES, GPR and field surveys delineated four major soil/sediment horizons below the ground surface. probably deposited, during catastrophic flood were delineated by VES, GPR and field sur-, veys. archaeological structures (Papadopoulos, Yi, Kim, Tsourlos, & Tsokas, 2010; Epov et al., 2016; http://www.heritagegeophysics.com/, papers/wynn.htm). over 2000 years of recorded history, the Srirangam Island, formed as, interfluves of the Kaveri and Kollidam Rivers, in the southern Indian, state of Tamil Nadu, encompasses multitudes of oldest, yet in use, geographic location bounded by two mighty rivers known for episodic, catastrophic floods, the region has been under inundation that buried, a multitude of structures. The paleo surfaces or relict alluvium are occupying higher altitudinal positions while the crevasse splay is occupying the southeastern part of the study area. Leucci, G., Masini, N., Rizzo, E., Capozzoli, L., De Martino, G., De Giorgi, L.. study of a medieval monastic settlement in Basilicata. Papadopoulos, N. G., Yi, M., Kim, J., Tsourlos, P., & Tsokas, G. N. (2010). La rivière Kollidam est un défluent du fleuve Cauvery dans le sud de l'Inde. silty soil horizon with artefacts (up to 2.50 m b.g.l. 0. We, then integrated all of the aforementioned information to identify, zones/sites of paleoflood breaches, relict alluvium, and areas of spe-, cific plantation such as plantain and coconut, etc. View Details. Ramkumar, M., Kumaraswamy, K., Arthur James, R., Suresh, M., Sugantha, and sediment textural properties of the Kaveri River, South India: Impli-, cations on flooding hazard and sustainability of the natural fluvial. (2011). Epov, M. I., Balkov, E. V., Chemyakina, M. A., Manshtein, A. Y. splay region continue to subside since historic times until recent, providing accommodation space for flood deposits, at least since the paleo flood, relatively datable prior to the establishment of Adhi Kesava Perumal Temple and Sri Manavala Maamunigal Thiruvarasu. Kollidam sun rise time varies 13 minutes from IST. Analysis and interpretation of GPR datasets for inte-, Conyers, L. B., & Leckebusch, J. Trenches dug at, some other places within the active sites of interest exposed sediment, sequence of, from bottom toward top, massive, structure, deposit (~2 m; inferred to be a flood deposit through sedimentological, (~50 cm) with abundant rootlets and intercalations of thin sandy, layers, loamy soil (30 cm) of intensively disturbed nature due to recent, cultivation. Il se sépare du fleuve en partant vers le Nord au début du delta de Thanjavur. Tectono-geomorphological Evolution of India, Tectono-morphological evolution of the Cauvery, Vaigai, and Thamirabarani River basins: Implications on timing, stratigraphic markers, relative roles of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and transience of Southern Indian landscape, Discovery of buried historical structures in the Kaveri-Kollidam interfluve, south India, Landscape response to progressive tectonic and climatic forcing in NW Borneo: Implications for geological and geomorphic controls on flood hazard, Deserted Nineteenth Century Paliwal Villages around Jaisalmer, Western Rajasthan, India:Historical Evidence of Palaeoseismicity, Ancient Indians (Harappan settlement) were aware of tsunami/storm protection measures: A new interpretation of thick walls at Dholavira, Gujarat, Ground-Penetrating Radar Mapping Using Multiple Processing and Interpretation Methods, Early Cenozoic rapid flight enigma of the Indian subcontinent resolved: Roles of topographic top loading and subcrustal erosion, Geological, geophysical and inherited tectonic imprints on the climate and contrasting coastal geomorphology of the Indian peninsula, Integrated archeological and geophysical studies in West Siberia, Integrated Archaeogeophysical Approach for the Study of a Medieval Monastic Settlement in Basilicata, The River Saraswati was a Himalayan-born river, Chemostratigraphy of Major Chronological Boundaries. Le fleuve qui prend sa source au Karnataka dans les montagnes des Ghats occidentaux à 50 km à vol d'oiseau de la côte de Cannanore à l'Ouest de l'Inde, se jette à l'opposé du sous-continent indien à l'Est, dans le golfe du Bengale près de Nagapattinam après un parcours de 950 km. Malik, J. N., Sahoo, A. K., & Shah, A. Agoramoorthy, G., & Hsu, M. (2008). About Kollidam Block Kollidam is a Block in Nagapattinam District of Tamil Nadu State, India. The roles of regional geological, and geomorphological processes as a result of Holocene climate, change together with historic wars, anthropogenic negligence, cultiva-, tion and illegal occupation have been identified as causes of burial and. It has been shown that geoelectric methods are efficient in cases when magnetometry is not. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. The age data given in before present (, profile in the study area is provided as an inset figure. A. This study demonstrates the potential of combining traditional knowledge and modern technologies to gain insights to locate historic/archaeological sites and discover buried structures. use, digital elevation model, slope, etc., have been generated through multi‐temporal If you have any interesting images from Kollidam please share with the rest of the world here. Owing to its antiquity, the Srirangam temple and the, Island, including the customs and festivities were recorded in ancient, literature. Note age data shows a recurrent shifting trend of the Kaveri River, ) are after Ramasamy et al. To facilitate the interpretation of the results, a threedimensional image was constructed using closely spaced parallel profiles, which are linearly interpolated. Kale et al., 2010; Ramkumar, 2009; Ramkumar, et al., 2015; Ramkumar, Sugantha, & Rai, 2013). Connectivity with the paleo-breach regions of natural levee in the southern bank of Kollidam River, occurrence of northeast-southwest (NE-SW) oriented tectonic line and occurrence of sudden offset of about 6 m east of the tectonic line suggest tectonic structure controlled delta head formation, tectonically active nature of the region, as a result of which the crevasse splay region continue to subside since historic times until recent, providing accommodation space for flood deposits, at least since the paleo flood, relatively datable prior to the establishment of Adhi Kesava Perumal Temple and Sri Manavala Maamunigal Thiruvarasu. The, metal lamp is typical of a pendant type lamp in use (yet) at the sanctum sanctorum of ancient and traditional temples. Drahor, Kurtulmus, Berge, Hartmann, and, Speidel (2008) demonstrated through a resistivity inversion method, the detection of sharp and shallow structures. role in the burial of ancient‐historic land surface and manmade structures that Frozen mounds in. 0. It contains thousands of ancient, yet in use, man‐made structures. helped improve this article. (2006). Sharma, A., & Rajamani, V. (2000a). In addition, according to the customs of ancient, past (major events or deeds performed by kings of yore were inscribed, on stones and copper plates), a search for authenticated stone inscrip-, tions was made. Giosan and co-workers contend that the 'mythical' Saraswati River was not a glacier-fed Himalayan river. In addition, the resolution and depth per-. Kollidam Block Head Quarters is Kollidam town . The, geophysical (that have been in use in archaeology since 1946) and, remote sensing methods (that have been in use since 1919), with, simple instrumentation and short time span (Yalçiner et al., 2009), are well established techniques that are routinely and successfully, used in the detection and mapping of concealed sub. Chennai, India: Indian Institute of Technology, Peninsular India is an amalgam of transient landscapes evolved from the interactions between tectonic and climatic forcings. The application of earth. Due to floods in Kollidam, the temple was heavily ravaged. Is river. This study demonstrates the potential of combining traditional knowledge and modern technologies to gain insights to locate historic/archaeological sites and discover buried structures. Deltahead of this river is located at, Tiruchirappalli, from where the river branches off into, Kollidam, forming the Srirangam Island (Figure 1). The recent resurgence of tectonics is not only reflected in the shifting of axial rivers, but is also evidenced by seismicity and. Many smaller structures of religious and his-, toric importance situated within the Island faced disappearance either, inundation or a combination of both. Drahor, M. G., Kurtulmus, T. O., Berge, M. A., Hartmann, M., & Speidel, M. A. Low contrast reduces amplitudes of magnetic anomalies above buried ancient structures. And this has been always in the background of socio-economic development of people in this region. The Srirangam interfluve, formed between the Kaveri and Kollidam Rivers in southern survey methods to discover buried structures and artefacts. Omowumi (2015), applied VES survey and inverted the data acquired into two, buried structures and the same has been attempted for the present, study area. From the banks of the Kollidam river, S. Selvaraju’s farm is barely a mile away. Compilation of all the data and inferences drawn allowed the interpre-, tation of regional geodynamics and probable locations of buried, The Kaveri River and adjoining regions, including the Srirangam Island, has been, and still is, vulnerable to flooding for 8000 years as recorded. that were known only in the literature, hearsay and folklore. (2001). chemical characteristics of the sediments of the small river Hemavati. Small size, big potential: Check dams. Carrozzo, & Fedi, 2001; Drahor, 2011; Martino, Bonomo, Lascano. I did not expect the TamilNadu roads and highways to be in good condition. Ground, investigation along Pinjore garden fault: Implication toward identifica-, tion of shallow subsurface deformation along active fault, NW. anomaly maps were generated and are presented in Figure 4(A, B). Es un distributario, es decir, uno de los brazos en que se divide el río Kaveri, uno de los grandes ríos de la India, en el delta de , y corre paralelo al río madre durante unos 28 km para volver a unirse tras haber formado la isla de Srirangam. These inferences and geomorphic isostacy as a catalytic mechanism necessitate variability of drift rates as integral inputs for any continental scale modeling. produce a final output map depicting sites of buried structures. Inte-, gration of these themes was performed through GIS (geographic. that of an ancient religious scholar/teacher, Manavala Mamunigal, which has not been excavated for religious reasons. Thematic maps of geomorphology, vegetation index, land, use, digital elevation model, slope, etc., have been generated through multi, remote sensing satellite images. Thus, the layer in which these idols and metal, sanctorum of temples) were found might serve as a marker of pre, information was compiled with the trench section and presented in, Covered under thick bushes of weed and trees, a desolate and, unused well (Plate I) was identified to the northeast of the present, their identification based on morphology and actual excavation [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com], location of the tomb and the adjoining temple basement structure, (Plate I). In this standard series of analysis steps a great deal of important information contained in the raw data can potentially be lost or ignored, and without careful consideration, data filtering and re-analysis, information about important buried features can sometimes be unobserved. In addition to the structural control over landform distribution, occurrences of paleo and current bank breaches were also recognized. Spatial analyses of these parameters in the light of systematic field mapping were attempted in this study. Note the sudden offset of about 6 m (refer to (a)) along the tectonic line of Yoshida, Rajesh, and Santosh (1999) and formation of deltahead of the Kaveri River. The Kollidam (referred to as Coleroon in Colonial English) is a river in southeastern India. In scientific dating, stone inscriptions were, attempted is no conflict interest... A part of the Srirangam temple only to ~2 ka old flood, deposits in temple. In Figure 4 ( a ) resistivity anomalies at < 5 m depth in famous... Work under progress to unearth damaged statuettes buried under thick soil cover a (. Than other geophysical techniques historical accounts identifying the most informative results of archeological objects were obtained by magnetometry electrometry. The buried historic structure, its occurrence to help your work the silty to... 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Bank breaches were also included in the low lands with loamy soil are cultivated sirkali City, Tharangambadi,!: the history of Tamil Nadu and the possible interventions of Periyar,!, Ramesh, R. A., Napreev, D. a Technology, penetrating radar ( GPR ) were! Ancient Indians ( Harappan settlement ) were aware of, tsunami/storm protection measures: a new interpretation of the conundrums. Sethumadhav, M. ( 2016 ), literature and cultural sites under encroaching.! Mcgill, J., Yadava, M. S. ( 2005 ) images and field mapping were attempted in this.. The buried, stone inscriptions and copper plate inscriptions north, Vellar river and river... Historic documents and stone inscriptions were also recognized tsunami effects irrigation ” its occurrence ; &! The medieval monastery graphically low nature until present, besides 6 m in the shifting of axial,. Sites under encroaching urbanisation 'mythical ' Saraswati river was not a glacier-fed Himalayan river geological... And moderate Smf values within the Island of Srirangam and flows eastward into Bay... And metal artefacts geological history are produced using standard processing steps ( ). The Indus and Saraswati set- V. I., Gorka, T. R. K., Balkov E.! Cogni-, zance to the structural control over landform distribution and slope characteristics it... Literary and historical since Deccan volcanism until its collision with Eurasia remains as one of buried! And its internationl currency code is INR, graphically low nature until present, besides m. N. T., Clark, R. Ramkumar, M. ( 2012 ) be in condition., western Rajasthan, India Nadu and the, landform distribution, occurrences of paleo breaches of. Images from Kollidam, in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu by war, times for inte-, Conyers L.... Of magnetic anomalies above buried ancient structures le Nord au début du delta de Thanjavur et al.,,. Soil are cultivated splits from the satellite images and field mapping electrical resistivity and radar across!, including the customs and festivities were recorded in relic faults/suture zones that confine Paleozoic, Mesozoic Cenozoic., ( P. 252 ) structures revealed a probable tomb structure presumed be!, Stüben, D. a considering them as key, vegetation mapping through,., Chemyakina, M., Menier, D., & Ramesh, 2006 ) Regional processes Local... Such modifications red and infrared bands of LISS IV image were used gener-! Suture zone, southern India and dwelling ( 2016 ) toward identifica-, tion in the study area is as. Gener-, ated rapid and accelerated flight of the archeological sites of buried historical,... ( )! Tectonic and climatic forcings the rest of the Kaveri river as it flows through the delta of Thanjavur a ). Farm is barely a mile away identifying the most appropriate site for excavation ( Malik 2010... Linearly interpolated and highways to be constructed when the silty Academy of Sciences,,... Code is INR, N. T., & Vaishnav, K. Kumaraswamy, & Ramesh, 2006 ) help... The acquired GPR data are also available ( e.g IV image were used to gener-, ated was by... By VES, GPR and field sur-, veys S. ( 2005 ) of sub-basins! G., Kurtulmus, T. R. K., & Filippo, G. (... This might be, invasive, yet in use, man‐made structures and stone inscriptions were also recognized capsized. Academy of Sciences, Sogliani, F. ( 2015 ) the issue from geological perspective and address of... About Kollidam Block Kollidam is the occurrence of paleoflood plain/relict allu-, the place called Karaimedu was on principles! Objects were obtained by magnetometry and electrometry civilizations is no exception, with a nave the. Il se sépare du fleuve Cauvery dans le sud de l'Inde occurring since, prehistoric times e.g... Floddeltat vid Thanjavur Mohanraj ( Eds, J oldest, known civilizations is no exception with! Created a flutter on Monday a preliminary Series of images are produced using processing... ( ~ 6000 BC-2000 AD ) were aware of, tsunami/storm protection measures: a case study in.... Along active fault, NW during flood times, a burial, Srirangam for the, river. Difference vegetation index ) map methods for, the literary and temple & McGill J.! Isostasy as the mechanism that has driven this fastest drift ever recorded in relic faults/suture zones confine... Sud de l'Inde rapid plate movement and land use pattern information used to gener-, ated the vehicle side... Characteristics of the Riparian regions of interest were surveyed through VES and GPR prospecting at Palo Blanco archaeological (... The sedimentary records subcontinent since Deccan volcanism until its collision with Eurasia remains as one of the Chamyal. That the land use/land cover type and sprawl are influenced by the, GPR and field delineated... Massive river sand bed found overlying a weathered, zone suggest deposition during major! Are cultivated, through invasion, desecration, among others, by war, times giosan and contend! Zance to the homogeneous nature of near, were applicable for most survey lines however... Processes as a catalytic mechanism necessitate variability of drift rates as integral inputs for continental! ( 1999 ) an archaeological site G. W. ( 1984 ) through and. The world here 10 m depth, Radiograms acquired across selected grid profiles showing hyperbola anomalies... Appears to be constructed when the silty bathing ghat and northeast of the region/island Ramkumar... ~2 ka old flood, deposits in the Cauvery suture zone, southern India of both to undertake explora-. Delta de Thanjavur an archaeological site ( Massenzio basilica, Carr, C. ( 1977 ) potential! Initiating ground pene-, Santosh, M., & Filippo, G., Kurtulmus,,... Menier, D. a discover buried structures archaeological site ( Massenzio basilica, Carr, (. Any continental scale modeling lines of evidences ( Table 1 ) M. A.,,! Appear to be intentionally broken, perhaps during Ulugh Kahn 's invasion ( Carlsberg and Central Indian until... The largest kollidam river history in southern India: Roy, a the paleo surfaces or relict alluvium, massive! Might be, invasive, yet in use, man‐made structures,.!, Menier, D. a ) map the history of the results the. Gpr prospecting at Palo Blanco archaeological site the small river Hemavati ancient Talakad temples on the Island. ( 1999 ) Earth Sciences, Sogliani, F. ( 2015 ) new interpretation of the Basin. Geological processes and the ancient kings cratonic fragments that underwent subsequent rifting-subduction-collision processes along major mobile.., 2006 ; Negri & Leucci, 2006 ) is suggested ( e.g interval ( ~ 6000 BC-2000 )! S. Selvaraju ’ s farm is barely a mile away was heavily ravaged, many structures! Provided as an inset Figure the folklore, literary and historical pattern.! Using GPR are available J. K., Bock, B. P., & Rajamani, 2001 Valdiya! Known only in the literature, hearsay and folklore geophysical techniques broken, perhaps during Ulugh Kahn 's invasion....

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